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Выставка: Промышленная экология и безопасность - 2009
Город: Владивосток

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Выставка: Форум "Создай себя сам" - 2015
Город: Краснодар

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Выставка: Форум "Создай себя сам" - 2015
Город: Краснодар

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Выставка: Технофорум - 2015
Город: Волгоград

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Выставка: Кузбасский бизнес-форум - 2010
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Выставка: Технофорум - 2015
Город: Волгоград

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Выставка: Технофорум - 2015
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Выставка: Агропромышленный Форум Юга России - 2015
Город: Ростов-на-Дону

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Выставка: Форум "Создай себя сам" - 2015
Город: Краснодар

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Выставка: Технофорум - 2015
Город: Волгоград

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Выставка: Технофорум - 2015
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Выставка: Форум "Создай себя сам" - 2015
Город: Краснодар

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Выставка: Технофорум - 2015
Город: Волгоград

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A boiler is a closed vessel where drinking water or other liquid is heated. The liquid does not always boil. (In North America, the word "furnace" is normally used if the reason is not to boil the fluid.) The heated or vaporized liquid exits the boiler for use in a variety of heating system or processes applications,[1 - [2 - including water heating, central heating system, boiler-based power generation, cooking, and sanitation.

Materials
The pressure vessel of the boiler is usually made of steel (or alloy steel), or historically of wrought iron. Stainless steel, of the austenitic types especially, is not used in wetted parts of boilers due to corrosion and stress corrosion breaking.[3 - However, ferritic stainless steel is often used in superheater sections that will not be exposed to boiling water, and electrically heated stainless steel shell boilers are allowed under the Western "Pressure Equipment Directive" for production of steam for sterilizers and disinfectors.[4 -
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler
In live steam models, copper or brass is often used because it is easier fabricated in smaller size boilers. Historically, copper was often used for fireboxes (particularly for vapor locomotives), because of its better formability and higher thermal conductivity; however, in more recent times, the high price of copper often makes this an uneconomic choice and cheaper substitutes (such as metal) are used instead.

For much of the Victorian "age of vapor", the only materials used for boilermaking was the highest quality of wrought iron, with assembly by rivetting. This iron was from specialist ironworks, such as at Cleator Moor (UK), observed for the high quality of their rolled plate and its suitability for high-reliability use in critical applications, such as high-pressure boilers. In the 20th century, design practice moved towards the utilization of steel instead, which is more powerful and cheaper, with welded construction, which is quicker and requires less labour. It ought to be observed, however, that wrought iron boilers corrode considerably slower than their modern-day steel counterparts, and are less susceptible to localized pitting and stress-corrosion. This makes the durability of older wrought-iron boilers much more advanced than those of welded steel boilers.

Cast iron might be used for the heating vessel of domestic drinking water heaters. Although such heaters are usually termed "boilers" in some countries, their purpose is to produce hot water usually, not steam, and they also run at low pressure and stay away from boiling. The brittleness of cast iron makes it impractical for high-pressure steam boilers.
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Energy
The foundation of heating for a boiler is combustion of some of several fuels, such as wood, coal, oil, or gas. Electric vapor boilers use resistance- or immersion-type heating elements. Nuclear fission is utilized as a heat source for producing steam also, either straight (BWR) or, in most cases, in specialised temperature exchangers called "steam generators" (PWR). Warmth recovery steam generators (HRSGs) use heat rejected from other processes such as gas turbine.

Boiler efficiency
there are two methods to gauge the boiler efficiency 1) direct method 2) indirect method

Immediate method -direct method of boiler efficiency test is more usable or more common

boiler efficiency =Q*((Hg-Hf)/q)*(GCV *100 ) Q =Total vapor flow Hg= Enthalpy of saturated vapor in k cal/kg Hf =Enthalpy of give food to water in kcal/kg q= level of gasoline use in kg/hr GCV =gross calorific value in kcal/kg like family pet coke (8200 kcal/KG)

indirect method -to gauge the boiler efficiency in indirect method, we need a subsequent parameter like

Ultimate analysis of gas (H2,S2,S,C moisture constraint, ash constraint)
percentage of O2 or CO2 at flue gas
flue gas temperature at outlet
ambient temperature in deg c and humidity of air in kg/kg
GCV of gasoline in kcal/kg
ash percentage in combustible fuel
GCV of ash in kcal/kg
Configurations
Boilers can be classified in to the following configurations:

Pot boiler or Haycock boiler/Haystack boiler: a primitive "kettle" where a fireplace heats a partially filled drinking water box from below. 18th century Haycock boilers produced and stored large quantities of very low-pressure vapor generally, hardly above that of the atmosphere often. These could burn off wood or frequently, coal. Efficiency was suprisingly low.
Flued boiler with one or two large flues-an early type or forerunner of fire-tube boiler.

Diagram of the fire-tube boiler
Fire-tube boiler: Here, water partially fills a boiler barrel with a small volume still left above to accommodate the vapor (steam space). This is the type of boiler used in nearly all steam locomotives. Heat source is inside a furnace or firebox that has to be held completely surrounded by water in order to keep the heat of the heating system surface below the boiling point. The furnace can be situated at one end of the fire-tube which lengthens the road of the hot gases, thus augmenting the heating surface which can be further increased by causing the gases invert direction through a second parallel pipe or a bundle of multiple pipes (two-pass or come back flue boiler); on the other hand the gases may be studied along the edges and then beneath the boiler through flues (3-pass boiler). In case there is a locomotive-type boiler, a boiler barrel stretches from the firebox and the hot gases pass through a bundle of fire pipes inside the barrel which greatly increases the heating system surface compared to a single pipe and further improves heat transfer. Fire-tube boilers have a comparatively low rate of steam production usually, but high vapor storage capacity. Fire-tube boilers mostly burn off solid fuels, but are readily adaptable to those of the gas or liquid variety.

Diagram of the water-tube boiler.
Water-tube boiler: In this kind, tubes filled up with water are arranged in the furnace in a genuine amount of possible configurations. Often the drinking water pipes connect large drums, the lower ones comprising drinking water and the top ones steam and water; in other instances, like a mono-tube boiler, drinking water is circulated by a pump through a succession of coils. This type provides high vapor creation rates generally, but less storage space capacity than the above mentioned. Water tube boilers can be made to exploit any warmth source and are generally preferred in high-pressure applications since the high-pressure water/steam is included within small diameter pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall structure.
Flash boiler: A flash boiler is a specialized kind of water-tube boiler where tubes are close collectively and drinking water is pumped through them. A flash boiler differs from the type of mono-tube steam generator where the pipe is permanently filled with water. Super fast boiler, the tube is kept so hot that water give food to is quickly flashed into steam and superheated. Flash boilers experienced some use in cars in the 19th century and this use continued in to the early 20th century. .

1950s design steam locomotive boiler, from a Victorian Railways J class
Fire-tube boiler with Water-tube firebox. Sometimes both above types have been mixed in the next manner: the firebox includes an assembly of water tubes, called thermic siphons. The gases go through a typical firetube boiler then. Water-tube fireboxes were installed in many Hungarian locomotives,[citation needed - but have fulfilled with little success in other countries.
Sectional boiler. Within a solid iron sectional boiler, sometimes called a "pork chop boiler" the water is contained inside solid iron areas.[citation needed - These areas are assembled on site to generate the finished boiler.
Safety
See also: Boiler explosion
To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Culture of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop criteria and regulation rules. For example, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a typical providing an array of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with protection, design and security standards.[5 -

Historically, boilers were a way to obtain many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles. Thin and brittle metallic shells can rupture, while welded or riveted seams could open up badly, resulting in a violent eruption of the pressurized steam. When water is converted to vapor it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres each hour. Because of this, steam is a superb way of moving energy and temperature around a niche site from a central boiler house to where it is necessary, but with no right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion. At best, this boosts energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter vegetation and unreliable procedure. At worst, it can result in catastrophic failing and lack of life. Collapsed or dislodged boiler pipes can also aerosol scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who fill the coal in to the open fire chamber. Extremely large boilers providing a huge selection of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire structures.[6 -

A boiler that has a loss of give food to water and it is permitted to boil dry out can be hugely dangerous. If supply drinking water is sent in to the empty boiler then, the tiny cascade of incoming drinking water instantly boils on connection with the superheated steel shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be managed even by security vapor valves. Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the vapor source lines that is bigger than the make-up drinking water supply could replace. The Hartford Loop was created in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and INSURANCE PROVIDER as a strategy to help prevent this problem from happening, and thereby reduce their insurance claims.[7 - [8 -

Superheated steam boiler

A superheated boiler on the steam locomotive.
Main article: Superheater
Most boilers produce vapor to be utilized at saturation temperatures; that is, saturated steam. Superheated steam boilers vaporize the water and then further temperature the vapor in a superheater. This provides vapor at higher temperature, but can decrease the overall thermal efficiency of the vapor generating plant because the higher vapor heat requires a higher flue gas exhaust heat range.[citation needed - There are many ways to circumvent this issue, by providing an economizer that heats the feed drinking water typically, a combustion air heater in the hot flue gas exhaust path, or both. You will find benefits to superheated steam that may, and often will, increase overall efficiency of both vapor generation and its own utilization: increases in input temperature to a turbine should outweigh any cost in additional boiler problem and expense. There may also be useful restrictions in using moist steam, as entrained condensation droplets will damage turbine blades.

Superheated steam presents unique safety concerns because, if any system component fails and allows steam to flee, the high pressure and temperature can cause serious, instantaneous injury to anyone in its path. Since the escaping steam will initially be completely superheated vapor, detection can be difficult, although the extreme heat and sound from such a leak indicates its existence clearly.

Superheater procedure is similar to that of the coils on an fresh air conditioning unit, although for a different purpose. The vapor piping is directed through the flue gas route in the boiler furnace. The temperatures in this area is typically between 1,300 and 1,600 °C (2,372 and 2,912 °F). Some superheaters are radiant type; that is, they absorb high temperature by radiation. Others are convection type, absorbing temperature from a liquid. Some are a mixture of both types. Through either method, the extreme heat in the flue gas route will also warmth the superheater vapor piping and the steam within. While the temp of the steam in the superheater increases, the pressure of the steam will not and the pressure remains the same as that of the boiler.[9 - Virtually all steam superheater system designs remove droplets entrained in the steam to prevent harm to the turbine blading and associated piping.

Supercritical steam generator

Boiler for a power vegetable.
Main article: Supercritical steam generator
Supercritical steam generators are frequently used for the production of electric power. They operate at supercritical pressure. As opposed to a "subcritical boiler", a supercritical vapor generator operates at such a high pressure (over 3,200 psi or 22 MPa) that the physical turbulence that characterizes boiling ceases to occur; the fluid is neither water nor gas but a super-critical liquid. There is absolutely no generation of vapor bubbles within water, because the pressure is above the critical pressure point at which vapor bubbles can develop. As the fluid expands through the turbine phases, its thermodynamic condition drops below the critical point as it does work turning the turbine which changes the electrical generator that power is ultimately extracted. The fluid at that time may be a mixture of steam and liquid droplets as it goes by into the condenser. This leads to somewhat less gas use and for that reason less greenhouse gas production. The word "boiler" shouldn't be used for a supercritical pressure steam generator, as no "boiling" occurs in this device.
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Accessories
Boiler accessories and fittings
Pressuretrols to control the vapor pressure in the boiler. Boilers generally have 2 or 3 3 pressuretrols: a manual-reset pressuretrol, which functions as a basic safety by setting top of the limit of steam pressure, the working pressuretrol, which handles when the boiler fires to keep up pressure, as well as for boilers equipped with a modulating burner, a modulating pressuretrol which settings the quantity of fire.
Protection valve: It can be used to alleviate pressure and prevent possible explosion of a boiler.
Water level signals: They show the operator the amount of liquid in the boiler, also called a sight glass, water measure or water column.
Bottom level blowdown valves: They offer a means for removing solid particulates that condense and lay on the bottom of a boiler. As the name indicates, this valve is usually located directly on the bottom of the boiler, and is occasionally opened up to use the pressure in the boiler to force these particulates out.
Constant blowdown valve: This enables a small level of water to escape continuously. Its purpose is to prevent the water in the boiler becoming saturated with dissolved salts. Saturation would lead to foaming and cause drinking water droplets to be transported over with the vapor - a condition known as priming. Blowdown is often used to monitor the chemistry of the boiler drinking water also.
Trycock: a type of valve that is often use to manually check a water level in a tank. Most found on a drinking water boiler commonly.
Flash tank: High-pressure blowdown enters this vessel where the steam can 'flash' safely and become found in a low-pressure system or be vented to atmosphere while the ambient pressure blowdown flows to drain.
Automatic blowdown/constant heat recovery system: This system allows the boiler to blowdown only once makeup water is flowing to the boiler, thereby transferring the utmost amount of heat possible from the blowdown to the makeup water. No flash container is generally needed as the blowdown discharged is close to the heat of the make-up water.
Hand openings: These are steel plates installed in openings in "header" to permit for inspections & installation of pipes and inspection of internal surfaces.
Vapor drum internals, some display, scrubber & cans (cyclone separators).
Low-water cutoff: It really is a mechanical means (usually a float change) that can be used to turn from the burner or shut down fuel to the boiler to avoid it from working once the drinking water moves below a certain point. If a boiler is "dry-fired" (burnt without water in it) it can cause rupture or catastrophic failing.
Surface blowdown series: It offers a means for removing foam or other lightweight non-condensible substances that tend to float on top of the water inside the boiler.
Circulating pump: It is designed to circulate water back again to the boiler after it has expelled some of its heat.
Feedwater check valve or clack valve: A non-return stop valve in the feedwater series. This may be suited to the comparative aspect of the boiler, just below the water level, or to the top of the boiler.[10 -
Top give food to: With this design for feedwater injection, the water is fed to the very best of the boiler. This can reduce boiler exhaustion caused by thermal stress. By spraying the feedwater over a series of trays the water is quickly heated and this can reduce limescale.
Desuperheater tubes or bundles: A series of pipes or bundles of pipes in water drum or the vapor drum designed to cool superheated vapor, in order to supply auxiliary equipment that will not need, or may be damaged by, dry out vapor.
Chemical substance injection line: A connection to add chemicals for controlling feedwater pH.
Steam accessories
Main vapor stop valve:
Steam traps:
Main steam stop/check valve: It can be used on multiple boiler installations.
Combustion accessories
Gasoline oil system:gasoline oil heaters
Gas system:
Coal system:
Soot blower
Other essential items
Pressure gauges:
Feed pumps:
Fusible plug:
Inspectors test pressure measure attachment:
Name dish:
Registration dish:

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